Edible perennials are at the heart of a successful permaculture garden. These plants live for several years, are abundant, and bring diversity and resilience to the garden. They perform many functions in the system, and dramatically increase the harvestable yield.Not only do perennials provide an ongoing supply of food, fibre and medicine for the gardener, they also provide structure to the garden, mulch, in-garden windbreaks or shade, habitat for beneficial insects, hides for birds and frogs, pollen for bees, and organic matter for the soil.Perennials are easy to grow and harvest. Well-chosen perennials need little maintenance to be healthy and come back year after year. Their root systems access water and nutrients deep in the soil, making them typically more hardy and self-reliant than annuals. They can withstand difficult conditions and are great for challenging corners of the garden.